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Technical Features
The technical features are those necessary for the material`s suitable and reliable performance.

EN-ISO 10545 and UNI-EN are the standards compiled by the CEN( European Committee for Standardiastion), and are valid throughout Europe and apply to all types of tiles, of all sizes of premium quality.

DIN 51130, DIN 51097, ASTM C 1028

Identity the "R" index of resistance to slip, depending on the angle of inclination at which a person walking on an inclined plane cannot keep his balance.
CLASSIFICATION (Document ZH 1/ 571 preceding DIN standard 51130)

R Angle V(cm3/dm3) Example of use
9 3-100   Also areas (sales and cashier) in which dampness can only be brought in from outside.
10 10-190   Hotel kitchens; wet storage areas.
11 19-270   School kitchens - Bottling of drinks.
    4 Industrial kitchens up to 100 meals.
12 27-350   Fast food outlets - Smoked park production.
    6 Preparation of poultry
13 >350 6 Tanneries Raw park depts - Vegetable canning
    8 Meat cutting
    10 Butchering

The slip resistance of ceramic tile in ordinary applications is comparable to that of most hard surface flooring materials and it`s significantly better than some. Unglazed tiles have greater slip resistance than glazed tiles and are recommended for areas subjected to high water spillage. Many glazed and unglazed tiles also feature and abrasive grit on their surface, increasing their slip resistance substantially. These tiles are particularly suited to public area with direct access to the outdoors.

UNI EN ISO 10545-14/ IS 13756 : 1993

Method applicable to all working surfaces of ceramic tiles to determine their resistance to stains. Each staining agent must remain on at least 5 testing samples, for at least 24 hours, whose working surfaces has been cleaned and dried beforehand. Removal of the staining agents takes place in subsequent steps using various cleaning agents and cleaning procedures.

CLASS 5; the stain is removed using hot water
CLASS 4; the stain is removed using a weak commercial cleaning agent
CLASS 3; the stain is removed using a strong commercial cleaning agent
CLASS 2; the stain is removed using solvent, such as acetone for example

Ceramic material in general is the most stain resistant building product in the world. Glazed tile and even some unglazed tiles resist practically all solutions that could cause staining in other types of products.

Ceramic tiles do not retain dust or residues. Plain water or a damp cloth is generally all that`s required to keep the tile clean, With the exception of tiles such as Terra-cotta, which may be optionally oiled or waxed, no polishing or buffing is necessary to maintain the finish.

UNI EN ISO 10545-3/ IS 15622 : 2006

Absorption is the ceramic product capacity for water penetration. Obviously, this is greatly important for the determination of the product mechanical features. The CEN European Regulations subdivide pressed tiles into five groups according to their absorption percentage: ANNEX G, H, J, K, L.

The glaze on ceramic tile is non-porous so when we refer to water absorption, it pertains only to the tile`s body. The water absorption of the tiles is important to know in order to make the right selection for outdoor use. If the tile absorbs more than 3% moisture, it is not suited for outdoor use in cold climates where it may freeze and crack.

UNI EN ISO 10545-13/ IS 13756 : 1993

Resistance to chemicals is the capacity of the glaze at room temperature to tolerate contact with chemicals (domestic products, staining chemicals,, pool additives, acids and solvents) without alteration in its appearance.

UNI EN ISO 10545-12/ ISO 13006 GR. B/A

Frost resistance is a quality tiles have when are subjected to water at temperatures lower than 0°C without being damaged by stress generated by their moisture content freezing. The tiles are defined as resistance or not.

UNI EN ISO 10545-9/ IS 13756 : 1993

Resistance to thermal shock is the capacity of a glazed surface not to suffer visible alteration because of the "shock" caused by difference in temperature. The test involves a number of repeated cycles with the tile immersed in water at room temperature, after which it is placed in an oven at temperature higher than 105°C. On the basis of the test, the tile is defined as resistant or not.

UNI EN ISO 10545-4

Bending resistance is the maximum load applied at three points that the tile can bear without breaking. The level is expressed in N/mm2, and ISO 10545/4 standard defines the following minimum acceptable settings: BIb 35
BIIa 30
BIIb 18

UNI EN ISO 10545-7/ ISO 13006 gr. B/A

Abrasion resistance is the capacity of the glazed surface to resist the wear caused by foot traffic or the abrasion caused by mechanical equipment (lift trucks, etc.). The wear action is strictly linked the mechanical agent (rubber sole, leather sol, etc.), the material carried on to the surface (water, sand, mud, etc.) and classified in five categories depending on the areas they are be used in:
PEI I Tiles for areas with light traffic and without abrasive dirt, e.g. bathrooms, bedrooms
PEI II Tiles for areas with average traffic and medium to low abrasion, e.g. study rooms, living rooms
PEI III Tiles for areas with medium to high traffic and average abrasion, e.g. foyer, kitchen in private residences
PEI IV Tiles for areas with intense traffic, e.g. restaurants, offices, shops, public offices (excluding floors under cash desks and shop counters and narrow unavoidable passageways)
PEI V Tiles for areas with especially intense traffic

How will a tile`s glaze surface hold up under continuous wear? This is a very important consideration when choosing any glazed floor tile. Commercial areas; as well as areas of the home such as kitchens of foyers subjected to heavy usage, demand good abrasive resistance, if the right product is chosen and if it is maintained properly, this is, kept free of sand and grit; it could easily last the lifetime of the home.

UNI EN 176 EN 101/ IS 13006

Material Hardness means its resistance to surface scratching. This is particularly important feature in flooring materials, which are subject to deterioration due to wear and scratchings. Resistance is measured on the Mohs scale. This scale includes ten ores graduated in increasing hardness order, so that each one can scratch the preceding ones and can be scratched by the following ones :
1) Talc
2) Gypsum
3) Calcite
4) Fluorite
5) Apatite
6) Orthoclase
7) Quartz
8) Topaz
9) Corundum
10) Diamond

UNI EN ISO 10545 - 02 / ISO 13006 gr. B/A

Admissible deviation in % of the average dimension of a single tile from the manufacturing dimension.

UNI EN ISO 10545 - 02 / ISO 13006 gr. B/A

Admissible deviation in % of the average thickness of a single tile from the manufacturing thickness.

UNI EN ISO 10545 - 02 / ISO 13006 gr. B/A

Admissible deviation of the maximum single value in % compared with the manufacturing dimension.

UNI EN ISO 10545 - 02 / ISO 13006 gr. B/A

Admissible deviation of the maximum single value in % compared with the manufacturing dimension.

UNI EN ISO 10545 - 02 / ISO 13006 gr. B/A

Admissible deviation of the maximum single value in % compared with the manufacturing dimension.
1) Centre of warpage compared with the diagonal
2) Edge warpage compared with edge length
3) Warping compared with diagonal
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